The word defined by different scholars in different time by various ways but some of it prints in the following phrase;
Psychologist Roger Brown defines as the symbolic operation designed to create action in other sentiments is called propaganda.
While Lasswell defined propaganda as to control the mind of the public, through spoken, written, pictorial, musical representation of the orator, writer and performer.
In simple words propaganda is a struggle to construct public estimation in support of a fastidious interest.
- Synonyms of the term
The other terms using as synonyms for the propaganda are;
- “Psychological warfare”
- “The War of Wit”
- “ideological Warfare”
- “The Battle for Men’s Mind ”
- “Political Warfare”
- “Educational Warfare”
- “Religious Warfare”
- “Military Warfare”
- Different kinds of Propaganda
The different kinds of propaganda are presents in the following way;
- Kinds from source point of view:
- White propaganda
In this technique of propaganda the exact causes and resources of propaganda are notorious or known.
- Black propaganda
In the black propaganda approach the activist is show as group instead of individual.
- Gray propaganda
In this kind of tactic, the actual factors of the propaganda are hide and secret and other individual or group is working on front line.
- Kinds From Time point of view:
- Tactical propaganda;
This is method use for the short term access or immediate purpose and usually applying on homogenous group in the society.
- Strategic propaganda;
This type of technique is using for the long term objective, aims and purposes. It usually spread among heterogeneous people of the acuity.
- Consolidation propaganda;
In this tactic the propagandist tries to disseminate messages in elite force to establish military government in the area.
- Kinds From Operational point of view:
According to this sort, the operator is wants to attack on the enemy by the use of propaganda.
As well as to spoil the propaganda the defender also use the technique of defensive from to safe themselves.
- Kinds Purpose Point of view:
- To disseminate fear and terrier among the public
- To encourage third force in the battle
- To persuade individuals power.
- To confuse the public in time of crisis
- To harass the political leadership
- Usage of Media in Propaganda
The Media critics and propagandist are commonly classified media of propaganda in two categories:
Slow Media: in the slow media of propaganda, the communication scholars includes all the print media such as Newspapers, books, magazines, pamphlets, handbills, posters, speeches and lectures in different shapes in different places.
Fast Media: according to the communication scholars and propagandist critics the fast media are comprises on electronic media and satellites communication.
- ‘Propaganda Devices’
- Lincoln Harter and John Sullivan have enlisted 77 propaganda devices in their book titled “Propaganda Hand Book”. However, there are only seven the devices mostly used in the world and mentioned by Severin & Tankard; these are given in the following lines:
- Name Calling
The propagandists usually attribute a good idea with bad label through the use of this type of device. The idea of the activist is accepted as he is known as trustworthy person while spreading the label, such as “Mujahidin” in the 1980’s to 1990’s . But the US propagandists changed the label with “terrorists” and “fundamentalists” after the objectives were achieved. What may be the case, the audience accept or turn down the propaganda without examining it in the light of facts.
- Glittering Generality
In this technique, an acceptable label is given to a bad idea while those related to it have a disreputable past in the society. In some instances, some terrorist organisations are labeled as “freedom fighters” or dubbed as the heroes of the nation. The public accepts their slogan and they don’t confirm the realities about the person or organization.
As regards this device, ideas, thoughts, activities, individuals and groups are portrayed with a good image; for example, promoting smoking of cigarettes and showing that it improves health. However, it is extremely injurious to the health of those who accept the message.
At times, the propagandist tries to affect an idea and person through the statement of a respectable personality. Testimonial means having some respected or hated person say something good or bad about a given idea or program or product or person, e.g appearance of famous Pakistani cricketers Shahid Afridi and Wasim Akram in Pepsi advertisements.
- Plain Folk
When a speaker tries to establish good relations with audience and to assert that he and his ideas are good because he or she is from their community; this is referred to as “Plain Folk” device.
In election campaigns, the politicians use the same tactic for political mileage. In other words, the politicians emphasize that, “you know me and I know you.”
- Card Staking
Card staking refers to the idea that the propagandist selects and uses facts or false things and illustrations as per his own free will, with an aim to portray an idea, program, person or product positively or negatively.
For instance, the TV commercials show only those people who like or appreciate a product, but the people whose opinions run counter to the first group are not shown.
Sometimes the propagandist tries to convince someone that all members of the group, to which hail from, accept his idea and hence he or she should also follow it. For example, the commercial or advertisement of Pepsi says: “Dunya hy Dil Walo ki” while the Mobilink says “Jazz apna hy”, and the Zong says: “sub keh do,” etc.
Another example is that during times of war, the young men are termed the main force and portrayed as heroes of the nation etc.