2015 in review

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2015 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

A New York City subway train holds 1,200 people. This blog was viewed about 6,000 times in 2015. If it were a NYC subway train, it would take about 5 trips to carry that many people.

Click here to see the complete report.


Knowledge Gap Theory

Knowledge Gap Theory


This theory was first proposed in 1970 by Philip J Tichenor, then Associate Professor of Journalism and mass Communication, George A. Donohue, Professor of Sociology and Clarice. N Olien,  Instructor in Sociology, all three researchers in the University of Minnesota. They defined the Knowledge Gap theory, “as the infusion of mass media information into a social system increases higher socioeconomic status segments tend to acquire this information faster than lower socioeconomic status population segments so that gap in knowledge between the two tends to increase rather than decrease.”  In simple words it means, as the access to mass media increases those particular segments of population inevitable gain information faster and hence the wide gap increases with the lower economic status of the population. The world is yet to see the complete effect of the new technologies but as the globe turns out more technological and the expense rises, it more goes out of the league of the poor. As a result the knowledge gap also widens and the people of the higher economic class gain the benefits more. If the Information services are not made equal for the entire society, this gap of information will increase over the years.


In this theory knowledge is treated as any other commodity which is not distributed equally throughout the society and the people at the top of the ladder has more easy access to it. This theory was used in the presidential election and it is was seen that when a new idea invades in the society, the people of the higher strata understand it better and hence the gap expands. But, events such as debates, free talks may help to reduce this gap.

Few reasons have been stated of why this pattern of gap exist

1.    Communication Skills– As a person receives more education, his communication skill increases and hence gathering information becomes easier for him. Along with this reading, understanding mad memory skills also become better and thus he understands the issues of various spheres better.

2.    Stored information– Via classrooms, textbooks, discussions, educated person is exposed to much more topics than a less educated person and hence his awareness is more.

3.    Relevant Social Contact– A person with more education has more social integration. This helps him to counter various perspectives, diverse stories etc which makes his understanding of public issues better.

4.    Selective Exposure– An educated person knows well of how to use optimum use of a medium while on the other hand a person with no knowledge is unlikely to know it. Hence he will be less aware of the issues around the world and less interested and may not also know of how it may affect him.

5.    Media Target Markets– For every product, news or any commodity a certain segment is targeted and it is usually the higher strata of the society who is targeted and hence the lower strata remains unaware.

 Ways of Reducing the Gap

George A. Donohue and his other colleagues by the end of 1975 came up with three variables after a survey on local and national issues, which will help to reduce the gap and that failed this theory upto a certain extent.

  • Impact of local issues– It was seen that local issues that directly impacted the people had aroused more of social concern than national issues that did not have such a great impact and hence in these issues widened gap could be reduced.
  • Level of social conflict surrounding the issue– Until a communication breakdown, issues with more perceived conflict tends to grab more attention and weakening the knowledge gap hypothesis.
  • Homogeneity of the community– If it is a homogeneous community, the gap tends to be lesser than a wider heterogeneous community.

Four Theories of the Press

1-Introduction to Four Theories of the Press

We will use the Four Theories of Press to explain the different media systems. The four theories are: The Authoritarian Theory, The Libertarian Theory, Soviet-Communist Theory, and Social-Responsibility Theory.

Soviet-Communist Theory
The Soviet-Communist Theory originated from the Soviet Union from Marxist, Leninist, and Stalinist thoughts after the 17th century. Under the Soviet-Communist Theory, the state owns or in some way controls all forms of mass media directly. The media’s authority falls in the hands of a small group of party leaders. The role of the media in countries applying the Soviet-Communist Theory is to act as an instrument of the ruling party to unite people of the state, and to carry out plans of the party and state, bringing about societal change.

Also under the Soviet-Communist system, the media reports less on the bad things that happen under communism, and emphasizes the bad things that happen in democratic areas (David McHam’s Communication Law Center, undated). For example, when the Russian’s media was still under the Soviet-Communist system, the official communist paper “Pravda” portrayed the ideology that “Communist is good” by praising Stalin’s non-aggression pact with Hitler, and avoided reporting about the Chernobyl disaster as it may raise concerns about the safety of Soviet nuclear plant. Pravda reported about the incident only two days later after constant urging from Sweden. (Tiffany Gabbay, 2012)

Technically, currently, no country’s media is fully under the Soviet-Communist system. However, certain countries’ media possess characteristics of a Soviet-Communist media system. One example is the North Korean media. The North Korean media is very much- if not, entirely, controlled by the government. For a really long time, there were no independent journalists in North Korea, radio and television receivers are locked to government-specified frequencies. The media also covers up on the negative things that happen under the communist leadership, not revealing the dangers and hardships North Koreans faced. For example, the government suppressed news of a famine that affected millions of people (Committee to Protect Journalists, 2006). However, North Korea has shown signs of opening-up in recent years, and it’s media is used more to maintain societal status quo instead of bringing about changes and hence, North Korean’s media is currently leaning further towards an Authoritarian media system.

The Authoritarian Theory
Authoritarian theory is developed in the 16th and 17th century in England. The Authoritarian Theory is operationalized as strict control of content by the state and a general lack of freedom for the public to criticize state policies (Jennifer Ostini, undated). Under an Authoritarian media system, ownership of the media can be either public or private. Ownership of printing medias are mostly private, while broadcast and cinemas usually remain in the hands of the government.

The Authoritarian Theory describes the situation where states view the mass media as an instrument at all ties.  The role of the media is to mainly educate citizens, and acts as a propaganda tool for the ruling party.

The main difference between the Authoritarian theory and the Soviet-Communist Theory is that while the former allows both private and public media ownership, the latter allows strictly only public media ownership. Another difference is that while the Authoritarian medias are mainly use to maintain societal status quo, a Soviet-Communist media is often used to bring about societal  changes. (Krishnammurthy Sriramesh, undated)

In the past, the Burmese media has been under an Authoritarian system. Until 2011, the Burmese media has always portrayed itself as supportive of the country’s previous military junta. News reports gushed over generals, attacked foreign media, and remain uncritical of it’s military leadership. Journalists who wrote reports that threatened the ruling party were imprisoned. Stiff censorship regulations were in place as well, and only state-controlled newspapers, usually propaganda-filled, are allowed to publish daily. Privately run news publications published weekly rather than daily due to Myanmar’s stifling censorship requirements (Committee to Protect Journalists, 2006). However, recently, with the uprise of democracy in Myanmar and transition to a civilian government, the burmese media has been walking away from it’s extreme authoritarian approach, releasing imprisoned journalists. From June 2011, half of Myanmar’s privately owned publications were allowed to published without submitting page proofs to censors in advance. Also, the government will allow private daily newspapers from April next year (Aung Hla Tun, 2012).

Other countries whose media are practicing the Authoritarian Theory include: North Korea, China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

Libertarian Theory
The Libertarian Theory originally came from liberal thought in Europe from the 16th Century. The Libertarian Theory describes societies that provide media with unrestrained freedom, especially from government control, so that they are free to report a variety of views (Krishnammurthy Sriramesh, undated). There is no control or censorship. Under a libertarian media system, ownership of media is mainly private.

Under the Libertarian Theory, the media’s purpose is to inform, entertain, sell, and serve as a “watchdog”, keeping the government in check. Libertarian Theory involves some innate distrust of the role of the government and the state (Jennifer Ostini, undated), and a belief that everybody has rights to information. The theory also sees people as rational enough to decide what is good or bad and hence the press should not restrict anything. Even negative contents may provide audiences with knowledge. Libertarian thoughts are exactly the opposite of the Authoritarian Theory.

An example of a country whose media system applies the Libertarian Theory would be Finland. In 2011, the finnish press was ranked as “freest in the world” according to Freedom House, an organisation promoting freedom around the world. Freedom of expression and access to information is guaranteed under Article 12 of the constitution. Every citizen has the rights to reply and to have falsely published information corrected. Threats against journalists are rare, unlike those working under Soviet-Communist or Authoritarian media systems. Also, the internet is open and unrestricted, with around 89.4 percent of citizens having regular access in 2011 (Freedom House, 2012).

Other countries whose media apply the Libertarian Theory include: The Netherlands, and to a lesser extent, Hungary.

The Netherlands


Social-Responsibility Theory
Social Responsibility theory is an outgrowth of the Libertarian Theory. However, the Social-Responsibility Theory does not assume that anyone can use the media to publish anything like the Libertarian Theory. Instead, this theory requires the media to adhere to professional standards and codes of conduct when exercising their editorial freedom. Under the Social-Responsibility Theory, ownership of media is mostly private and practice self-regulation according to standards, codes and guiding principles. The media is relatively free of arbitrary government controls.

Under a Social-Responsible media system, the role of the media is to serve the public, and in order to do so, should remain free of government interference. The idea of this theory is that the media has  a moral obligation to provide adequate information for citizens to make informed decisions (Jennifer Ostini, undated). However, the different media can retain a liberal notion of healthy public disclosure. The media is also expected to represent the diversity of cultures they represent, and should have high standards for professionalism, truth, and accuracy.

One example of a country that practices the Social-Responsibility Theory is the United States of America. The USA has a Bill of Rights that states that the “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech, or the press.” (Lorne W. Craner, 2008). This bill entitles the media to freedom and at the same time, put across a trust the congress has for the media to be responsible for its freedom. Such trust encourages the media to be responsible for the information it publishes.

Countries who has a Social-Responsible media system include: France, Germany, and Japan.

What is Noise ?

“The goal of all communication is understanding. Anything that interferes with this understanding is called noise.” Rosie Bunnow, University of Wisconsin

Physical noise (also called external noise) involves any stimuli outside of the receiver that makes the message difi cult to hear. For example, it would be difficult to hear a message from your professor if some-one were mowing the lawn outside the classroom. Physical noise can also take the form of something a person is wearing, such as “loud jewelry” or sunglasses, which may cause a receiver to focus on the object rather than the message.
Physiological noise refers to biological inl uences on message recep-tion. Examples of this type of noise are articulation problems, hearing or visual impairments, and the physical well-being of a speaker (that is, whether he or she is able to deliver a message).

Psychological noise (or internal noise) refers to a communicator’s biases, prejudices, and feelings toward a person or a message. For example, you may have heard another person use language that is offensive and derogatory while speaking about a certain cultural group. If you were bothered by this language, you were experiencing psychological noise.
Semantic noise occurs when senders and receivers apply different meanings to the same message. Semantic noise may take the form of jargon, technical language, and other words and phrases that are familiar to the sender but that are not understood by the receiver. For example, consider Jim, a 40-year-old Franco American living in Maine. Jim’s primary language is French, so he frequently uses the English language in ways that are a bit nonsensical. For instance, when asking to look at something, he says “hand me, see me” instead of “may I see that?” Or, at times, he will say “it will go that” in lieu of the phrase “this is the story.” These sorts of phrases and their use could be considered conversational semantic noise.